Mental Contrasting


To model mental moves that support a growth mindset – a crucial step in students’ growth needed to be sucessful in AP.


Students reflect upon any challenges or obstacles in achieving their goals and what action they might take to overcome that challenge through goal-setting.

Action Steps

  • Teachers help students set goals where students employ mental contrasting. They should write down potential roadblocks for accomplishing the goal as well as what they will do to overcome the roadblocks.
  • Teachers and students debrief goals and why/how they were able to reach them or not.
  • Follow the detailed instructions on the protocol linked below.


Goal Setting with Mental Contrasting

This works best with individual students on a case-by case basis.


Student Agency Improvement Community. (2016) Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching

Are these strategies helpful?